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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

142                The Loom of Language

When a German refers to something which occuis repeatedly he has to
use wenn The Norwegian uses ndr. Where it would be equally correct
for us to use the word when or the woid while the German equivalent ib
wahrend and the Norwegian is unner

An example taken from the history of the English language is instruc-
tive in this connexion In Anglo-American the particle here means
either at this place or to this place, and the particle there means cither
at that place^ or to that place It is equally correct to say he rtood //ere,
or he came here^ and it is equally correct to say he lived there,, or he goes
there In Mayflower English, the particles here and there indicated

O O    two \vkk 3&W? Ivvo bkv 1-
ty    two Uax> &#iw twr; wtufe'

ona wlute Ifrrantot (wo f-U I

two black

Sevan black 2VC9&ui one wluic

cue wnit
oru? white DGtWCCZl Iv/o Mtr 1

c lit wjnJc (
bLaxJc v{UJur Qllt$ld. wliitx* or< It*

bottom lea fiwaros" hip n

onelton^onial OZZ two
one wrhcai Opposite, ciiiofjin
"TOE PmBCTTVET Of PLACE
1JG   21
position alone^ i c, //crc meant a/ thv> placey and rfto c nu^ant at that place
When we use them to indicate direction^ i.e* motion towards a place,
our great-great-grandfathers would tliereforc have useu hither and
thither. An equivalent distinction exists m Swedish or German The
Swede says du ar har (you are here) or du var dar (you were there) and
kom hit (come here, i.e. come hither)9 or gd dit (go tker^ i,e, go thithw),
Such distinctions are vejty important in connexion with the use of
correct foreign equivalents for English directives. For that reason it is
helpful to classify the latter according as they do or can signify relations
of tmey place^ motion^ association and instrumentality (Figs* 21-25),